Wet feed mixtures technology in animal husbandry

1. Contrastive analysis of soybean processing technologies and equipment (unit)

2. Problem topicality

3. Goals and objectives

4. TEKMASH technology

5. TEK-SM unit description

6. Calculation of benefits ensured by TEKMASH technology

7. Effect of TEKMASH innovative technology on animal husbandry profitability

8. Technological effect

All technologies used for processing soybeans can be divided into "dry" and "wet" ones. Wet technologies yield soy milk, soy mayonnaise, soy paste obtained from whole soybeans (sometimes preliminarily processed). Conventionally soy milk is made with the help of so called "soy cows", that is, the equipment which performs wet crushing of soybeans, then processes them at 95-110oC (using a steam generator) and finally sustains them (to destroy or inactivate harmful substances).
Dry technologies consist in making soybean meal after processing soybeans in an extruder (for extracting oil) or in a high-speed mill. Soybean meal can also be yielded as a result of condensing and then evaporating soy milk.
Dry soybean meal produced by "ECO" ltd. is 1.5-2 times cheaper than an analogous imported product. Its indisputable benefits are long shelf-life and easy introduction in the diet.
Soy milk making equipment is widely represented on the market and varies in capacity and in origin.


1. Contrastive analysis of soy processing technologies and equipment (unit)

The analysis of technologies and characteristics of equipment used for making combined feeds on several farms testifies to their imperfection. Thus, for making 7% soy milk under the conventional wet technology 93% of water volume is to be heated to 100oC and then cooled to the temperature suiting animals, which results in energy losses and increased cost. Besides, not all farms can use energy-intensive equipment.
Dry technologies are also poorly justified as dry feeds such as soy meal are very expensive, on the one hand, and low-efficient as feeds, on the other hand.
It is a well-known fact that a soybean is a mine of protein complexes, easily digestible fats, amino acids, microelements. Soybean shelf-life depends on bean safety, soy quality grade being determined by the percentage of broken beans. If a bean skin is broken fats are oxidized and vitamin complexes are destroyed.
It is primarily because of this that dry soybean processing technologies cannot be considered efficient, the rate of oxidation exceeding the rate of manufacturing combined feeds. Besides, this method of feed preparation does not neutralize such harmful components as urease and inhibitor of tripcine, which is conducive to animal morbidity and murrain. Trials made by Biological Research Center at Palladin Biochemistry Institute testify to the fact that TEKMASH hydrodynamic processing technologies ensure preservation of soy vitamins in the paste.


2. Problem topicality

The analysis of the soybean processing technologies currently in use testifies to the fact that at present there is no unified approach to the development of soybean processing technologies that are to meet the following requirements:

  • optimum feeding technologies;
  • low cost, that is, high farm profitability;
  • minimum energy and resources consumption;
  • environmental friendliness.


3. Goals and objectives

1. Feeds are to be prepared immediately before feeding animals.
2. Temperature of feeds consumed should be within 20-30oC.
3. Energy rate of use when processing soybeans, peas or any other components should be minimal.
4. Equipment installed power should be minimal.
5. Both equipment and technologies should be designed for efficiently preparing such feed compounds as "soybeans - grain", "soybeans - maize", "peas - grain", etc.
6. Technologies should envisage efficient introduction of vitamins, medicinal and other additives.
7. Equipment should be durable and safe.
8. Both technologies and equipment are to be ecologically friendly.


4. TEKMASH technology

TEKMASH technology is realized by using TEK-SM hydrodynamic heaters and includes the following items:
1. Preparation of concentrated soy additives in the form of a paste-like product.
2. Soy paste dilution with cold water to achieve milk-like concentration immediately after its preparation accompanied by cooling it to 20-30oC.
3. One of the equipment modifications ensures its complete self-sufficiency due to using a diesel engine as a drive.
4. TEKMASH technologies are safe and durable due to the absence of heating elements. TEKMASH equipment does not employ steam generators and thus is not to be approved by State Labor Protection Inspectorate Board.
5. TEKMASH technologies are wasteless and, consequently, ecologically friendly.

Technologies advantages:

  • minimum energy inputs due to combining heating, crushing, mixing and introducing necessary components in one cycle;
  • minimum installed power of the equipment due to the process high efficiency (not less than 90%);
  • no heat exchangers.


5. TEK-SM unit description

TEK-SM unit operating principle consists in heating liquids by means of hydrodynamic effects, in particular, cavitation and turbulent friction. The equipment is composed of a pump with a diesel or electric drive, a bunker loaded with necessary components (raw material, water, additives) and a special device performing the mixture crushing and heating simultaneously. Necessary temperature is controlled and maintained automatically. The equipment is protected by Canadian and USA patents as well as international invention applications.
The fundamentally new approach to soy suspension heating makes it possible:

  • to prevent the formation of carcinogens which arise in thermally oxidized products due to their scorching on convective surfaces;
  • to perform even bulk heating of the whole product volume thus avoiding vitamin losses in overheated zones;
  • to simplify equipment design and reduce its maintenance cost.

6. Calculation of benefits ensured by TEKMASH technology

6.1. Comparison to conventional wet technology for preparing soy milk

Comparison table of USK-1000 and TEK-4SM units for making soy milk

1. Capacity, l/h 
Soybeans in milk - 7%, in paste - 28%
2. Soybean consumption, kg/h 70 89,6  
3. Installed power, kW
4. Steam consumption for 1 t product, kg 200 -  
5. Servicing staff, person
6. Production cycle, work/ pause, min. 60 45 / 15  
7. Water consumption, l/h
300 (1000)
Figure in brackets stands for water to make milk from paste
8. Weight, kg 1 200 800  
9. Equipment cost, units

Data for calculating the saving rate:

  • Shift duration - 8 hours, number of technological cycles - 7, duration of preparatory work - 1 hour, number of shifts - 1.
  • Amortization quota (accelerated) - 20%, number of workdays (a year) - 365.                                            
  • Cost:

- raw stuff (soybeans) - 600 units if grown on the farm or 1000 units if purchased;
- electric power - 0.2762 units/kWh (VAT included);
- rent (30 m?) - 600 unitsa month.

  • Transportation cost - about 1000 units/month.
  • Wages fund - 900 units/month.
  • Overhead expenses - about 32%, that is 290 units/month.
  • Maintenance cost - 1000+900+290+600=2790 units/month or 93 units/day (water and electricity costs excluded).
  • Capital allowances, daily:

- 90.7 units for USK-1000, 
- 17.5 units for TEK-4SM.

  • Manufacturing 1 t soy milk by USK-1000 unit requires 200 kg steam (1.4 mPa pressure) which corresponds to 174 kWh electric power (conversion ratio 0.9). As electricity tariff is 0.2762 units/kWh and USK-1000 unit consumes 180 kWh, the cost of one production cycle amounts to 49.7 units. and a shift - 347 units. TEK-4SM unit consumes 34 kWh, thus making one cycle cost 9.4 units and a shift cost 65.8 units
  • Cost of water consumed is 21 units and 11.6 units daily respectively, its price being 1.3 units/m?.
  • Total maintenance cost daily (considering p. 8, 9, 10) is 

- 93+347+90.7+21=551.7 units for USK-1000 unit
- 93+65.8+17.5+11.6= 188 units for TEK-4SM.

  • Proceeding from equipment characteristics its output per shift is

- 7000 kg soy milk from 490 kg soybeans for USK-1000 unit
 - 2240 kg soy paste from 627.2 kg soybeans for TEK-4SM unit. 7% soy milk is obtained by watering soy paste with cold water, the ratio being 1:3. The volume of milk in this case amounts to 8960 kg the milk temperature is 25-30oC which is quite good for consumption by animals.

  • Soy milk production cost is: 551.7:7 = 78.96 units per 1 ton for USK-1000 unit and 188:8.9 = 21.1 units per 1 ton for TEK-4SM unit.
    Thus, soy milk production cost with TEK-4SM unit is 3.7 times lower than with USK-1000 unit.
    In terms of 1 ton soybean processing cost it makes: 551.7:0.49 = 1126 units for USK-1000 unit and 188:0.6272 = 300 units for TEK-4SM unit.
    For further comparison suppose that USK-1000 makes 7 ton milk daily, that is, 2555 t yearly (7 x 365), at that the production cost amounts to 2555 x 78.9 = 201590 units In order to produce the same amount of milk with TEK-4SM unit the production cost makes 2555 x 21.1 = 53910 units, thus economy being 147680 units.
  • Another comparison can be made with dry soybeans cost. If the price of soybeans is 600 units/t, then the total price of 1 ton 7% milk is 78.9 + 600 * 0.07 = 121 units for usk-1000 unit and 21.1 + 600 * 0.07 = 63.1 units for TEK-4SM unit. In order to make the analysis simpler we can substitute liters for kilos, as a kilo of 7% milk practically equals a kilo of water. Then the cost of 1 l 7% milk makes 0.121 units for USK-1000 unit and 0.063 units for TEK-4SM unit. To simplify further analysis we express these prices in round numbers: 13 copecks for USK-1000 and 7 copecks for TEK-4SM unit.

6.2 Comparison with "dry" milk production technology

This technology is meant for making soy milk from soybean meal. Let us consider the technology used by ECO ltd.. Proceeding from their advertisement soybean meal average price is 3600 units/t.
1. The production of 1 ton 7% soy milk costs 252 units
2. For feeding animals soy meal is to be mixed with water and heated to 15-20oC. This process requires 25 kWh which costs about 10 units (water cost included).
3. Considering other expenses (labor, rent payments, etc.) the cost of 1 t milk amounts to 280 units, that is, 28 cop./l, thus making soy milk made from soy meal about 4 times cheaper if TEKMASH technology is applied.

6.3 Equipment payback

1. Let us take 7 t milk as daily output.
2. The economy due to substituting "wet" technology for "dry" one makes 280 units - 70 units = 210 units, or 1470 units daily.
3. If the equipment price is 32040 units it will pay back in 22 days (32040 : 1470).


7. Effect of TEKMASH innovative technology on animal husbandry profitability

According to the report agricultural company, they need 415 l soy milk to feed young animals for 6 months, the total feeds amounting to 1825 kg. The feeds cost is 367 units, or 0.2 units/kg, this being the case when 415 l soy milk are made from soy meal which costs 0.28 units/kg. Due to applying new technology (0.07 units/kg soy milk) the economy will make 415 x (0.28 - 0.07) = 87.15 units, that is, 23.8% (87.15 : 367).
Numerous reports testify to the fact that feed cost amounts to 60% total cost of fattening animals. Thus fattening cost is reduced by 14.7% and farm profitability is increased from 18.7% to 33.4%.
In this way just applying the new technology can increase the farm profitability by 1.5 times!
If we make calculations for soy cows application we will get 302.5 units as feeds cost.
The new technology application will reduce feeds cost by 24.9 units (415 x (0.13 units - 0.07 units)) while the profitability will rise by 5% or 1.27 times (from 18.7% to 23.7%).


8. Technological effect

Soy paste made by TEKMASH technology has been studied by the Research Biological Center at Palladin Biochemistry Institute for preservation of useful substances. 
The comparison was made with soybeans which had been previously made into soy meal. To prevent useful substances loss, this was performed immediately before each analysis which yielded the following data:
1. Vitamin content in soy paste is several times higher than in soy meal.
2. Fats (or it would be more exact to say, fatty acids) preserve their qualitative balance (unsaturated - saturated acids) on being processed. Especially it concerns unsaturated fats of linoleic and linolenic acids (their share being about 60%) that are so important for proper digestion. It should be stressed that under dry processing and long shelf-life the share of these essential compounds is considerable decreased.
3. The composition of amino acids is not changed if compared to dry beans, which is due to absence of heating surfaces and thus protein thermal destruction.
Thus, the analysis testify to the high efficiency of the suggested technology as far as the nutritive value of the finished product - TEKMASH soy paste - is concerned.

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