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This article covers an innovative technological approach which consists in applying hydromechanics to milk processing, namely, to thermal processing, homogenization and mixing, as developed by TEKMASH Institute.
Hydromechanics is a science dealing with liquids moving at high speeds, which causes turbulent friction, or turbulence. If we increase the speed the liquid will start boiling at low temperatures in narrow spaces, valves, etc. This phenomenon is called cavitation and is well known to food engineers working with piston homogenizers. Both turbulence and cavitation bring about liquid heating which under certain conditions can achieve pasteurization and sterilization temperatures. Using various constructive solutions, we can not only heat but simultaneously mix different food liquids, disperse solid particles in the liquid flow, emulsify animal fats or vegetable oils, aerate or deaerate air or other gases, etc.
Usually to accomplish these operations one, or seldom two, equipment units prove sufficient, which saves a lot of money, energy and labor. Such hydrodynamic units are devoid of heating surfaces, the whole liquid volume being evenly heated, thus denying its thermal destruction on the convective surfaces. This prevents the formation of milk stone caused by superheating, scaling or any other deposits. This equipment is easily washed, which facilitates its maintenance. It can operate in self-washing mode, thus excluding expensive CIP-washing, though CIP-washing can also be applied on request.
When cavitation bubbles collapse they break bacteria shells and 78-800C appears to be sufficient to completely destroy tubercle bacillus, a most dangerous causative agent of intestinal infections which normally perishes at 90-950C. Besides, the drop of the processing temperature by 2-30C contributes to the product organoleptic properties and improves the product quality two or even more times.
Hydrothermodynamic equipment proves to be very economical: only 10-12 kWh is sufficient to thermally process 1000 l milk, the heating being accompanied by homogenization and mixing. Just compare our equipment to the one produced by GEA company, Germany, which is considered the leader in the world dairy machinery. Their equipment requires 30 kWh for product pasteurization plus 15 kWh for homogenization, the total being 40-45 kWh for the processing of 1000 l milk, which is 2-3 times more! (See http://www.geagroup.com)
Irrespective of the equipment capacity and automation degree, the accuracy of maintaining temperature is ±0.30C, which guarantees the high quality of the finished product.
Due to using TEK hydrodynamic heaters it is possible to renounce the use of steam and superheated liquid and to change over solely to electricity. For small and middle-sized plants that process from 10 to 70-80 t milk daily several TEK-4 hydrodynamic heaters (45 kW) to supply the plant with hot water and 1 or 2 TEK-PH pasteurizers-homogenizers (15-45 kW) will be enough. Rejection of steam and, consequently, of "heating streets" caused by its irrational use makes dairy products manufacturing much easier and cheaper
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Pasteurizers-homogenizers make it possible to manufacture from 500 to 6000 l/h milk, kefir, yoghurt and other dairy products, the power capacity varying from 5.5 to 55 kW, respectively. The efficiency of such equipment equals 85-90% and increases with increasing capacity. The equipment can be operated both semi-automatically, the pasteurization temperature being under control, and fully automatically, using PLC if the customer can afford it.
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Here the problem of homogenization accompanied by thermal processing becomes especially important, as the homogeneity of mixtures with high content of fat or oil is not easily achieved. But by applying certain know-how TEKMASH has coped with the problem and achieved efficient 98-100% homogenization accompanied by pasteurization (or sterilization, if necessary) of 20-30% cream and ice-cream mixtures containing 20% or more butterfat or vegetable oil. When manufacturing ice-cream mixtures, TEK units also ensure efficient crushing of dry egg and milk powders, promote their swelling and introduction into the food liquid.
Rejection of expensive and uncertain piston homogenizers makes the production process simpler and cheaper by tens of percent!
In this case the product quality depends on the swelling of its protein constituent (skimmed milk powder or dry whey). Besides, it is necessary to introduce certain supplements and butterfat or vegetable oil.
A mini-plant making condensed milk and having capacity of 100-1000 kg/h occupies an area of 30-50 m² and can be serviced by 2-3 persons.
The technological operations of heating and pasteurizing highly viscous fatty mixtures, the introduction of sugar, protein powders, fat or oil are performed by TEK-HP flow-through mixers-homogenizers with the capacity of 5-20 m³/h which can work both in the closed circuit and in on-line mode. To obtain reconstituted milk, TEK-PH direct acting pasteurizers are installed after the reconstitution section. Hydromechanics phenomena help to intensify the process of protein swelling and to get high quality finished product at minimum cost.
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The traditional feedstock for such milk is soybeans which can be substituted for sunflower seeds. TEKMASH technologies ensure their wasteless processing. The milk obtained contains finely ground fiber and is characterized by sweet natural taste due to the fiber hydrolysis into sugar.
The first stage of making VM in TEK-SM batch unit consists in making milk concentrate (soy paste) in which soy antinutritive constituents, including antitrypsin, are reduced to safe levels or even totally destroyed. Using hydromechanics phenomena, TEK unit heats the soy paste to 105-1100C. On mixing the soy paste with cold water we obtain soy milk which can be used in feeding calves and piglets. If the equipment is made of stainless steel then the soy milk can be successfully used in human nutrition. If this milk is pasteurized in TEK-PH unit and supplemented with certain flavor enhancers it becomes delicious. Cheap and tasty!
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For 15 years of its existence TEKMASH has implemented more than 2000 TEK energy units which are engaged in heating tons of any quality water and do not require its conditioning. TEK heaters efficiency is most evidently revealed in the provision of daily needs at plants and factories as well as in heating separate buildings.
More than 100 pasteurizers-homogenizers are employed at dairy plants in various countries. The first units have been operating for 7 years! Our equipment can be found in Russia, Serbia, Germany, Iran, Canada... Dozens of homogenizers-mixers have been operating at numerous milk-canning plants in Ukraine saving much money and labor. This new technological approach meets the needs of manufacturers who are not inclined to turn back to steam!
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Carrera 16 # 9-68
Dosquebradas, Risaralda, Colombia.
?ngela Mar?a Sanz E